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研究者告诉孩子们他们的分数
发布者:佚名                      来源:未知            点击率:次             更新日期:2021-07-01 15:26

past research found thatbrains with stronger ern responses and consistent pe responses learn better.this study found thatthose with a growth mindset are better at learning from mistakes,他们的 pe 信号更强,这意味着他们更关注自己的错误。

这项研究的另一位主要作者hans schroder表示,“ pe反应更强的人会调用更多的认知资源来改善自己的任务表现。

玛丽·海伦·伊莫迪诺·杨, 南加州大学认知科学副教授, 也同意德怀克的观点。”

dweck and they finally gave the children another set of tests.the difficulty of this set of tests is similar to that of the first set.the test scores of children who were praised for their hard work increased by an average of 30%.but those kids who were praised for being smart dropped 20%.

2018年,斯坦福大学的神经科学家发表在《心理科学》(psychological science)上的一项研究也发现了类似的结果。

in this research,participants wear helmets that record their brain electrical signals (eeg),then play a finding difference game: find the one among the 5 letters,for example, "mmmmm" or "nnmnn".

sometimes the other 4 letters are the same as the middle letter,sometimes different.because this task is boring,it's easy for people to distract and make mistakes,errors are also easy to spot immediately.

尼尔斯·玻尔

the lead author of the study and neuroscientist jason s. moser said,when making a mistake,eeg will record 2 sets of signals,the first group is the signal that the brain realizes that it has made a mistake.the second group is an attempt to correct the error signal.

来源:把科学带回家

do you think,will different ways of praise affect the difficulty of the tasks children choose?children who are praised as smart are more willing to accept challenges,or a child who is praised for working hard?

很明显,拥有定型心态的人把失败看得很可怕,认为失败就是智力低下的表征。但是拥有成长心态的人却把失败当成是学习的一部分。

the second signal occurs 100-500 milliseconds after the error.this reaction occurs in the brain only when people notice that they have made a mistake.so this second reaction is also called false positive wave (pe).

他们发现,日本老师经常鼓励学生自己探索问题的解决方案。

首先,不要让孩子把成绩和智商挂钩,在看到孩子的成绩单时更不要用“聪明”啊“笨”啊这些词来评价他们,要多鼓励孩子从个人成长的角度看待学习。那些总想无视自己的错误,总想证明自己“聪明”的人,能学得好吗?

第一次任务结束后,研究者告诉孩子们他们的分数,然后给了他们一句鼓励。”那些认为错误中没什么可学,智商生来不变的人并不会利用错误学习。”"

这项研究还发现,那些有成长心态的人,换一种说法, 更喜欢解决数学问题的过程,解决算术问题时不是孩子的结果,大脑的某些大脑区域也更活跃(例如海马, 左前额叶皮层 左马达辅助区域, 等等).陈认为,对数学的积极态度可以促进大脑的认知功能。this reaction is spontaneous,it is called error-related negative potential (ern).

in fact, later research found thatpeople who always consider problems from the perspective of iq,not good at learning.because there is a big difference between people who are good at learning and those who are not good at learning—the attitude toward wrongs.

这样做的效果很不错。

two signals in eeg: ern (error related negative potential) and pe (error positive wave).brains with stronger ern responses and consistent pe responses learn better.

遗憾的是许多教育工作者认为犯错误是可耻的。一些数学老师在州立考核前的一个月里,在每周4次的小考后都会推出学生进行错题分析。

moser指出,“两种类人的最大差异是他们对错误的反应。”

later experiments by dweck and colleagues further proved thatpreserving "smart" face is deadly for learning.

such as,a study published in psychological science in 2011 found thatthe brain responses of those who think they can learn from their mistakes are very different from those of people who think their intelligence is fixed.

福特汽车的缔造者亨利·福特曾说,“不管你觉得你行或者不行,你的判断都是正确的。

他们在书中评论,“知道为什么错了,了解为什么它是正确的。

这些研究给我们上了生动的一课。

首先,卡耐基梅隆大学的数学教育学家robert siegler指出,订正和回顾很重要,尤其是对于数学而言。这是相当优秀的成绩。

这项研究的作者之一,斯坦福大学的认知科学研究者lang chen表示,“我们的研究证明,对数学怀抱积极的心态有助于儿童学习数学。

那么,学生,家长和老师怎样利用这些研究成果呢?

德韦克(dweck)称赞这项研究,“这项研究令人兴奋。

dweck thinks,praise children for being smart,it is tantamount to encouraging them to "pretend to be smart."so how to be smart,it is to choose simple tasks, make fewer mistakes, and get good grades.

half of the children's encouragement is,”you are really smart!"the other half of the kids are encouraged"you really worked hard!"then,they let the child choose the difficulty of the new test,and tell them,difficult tasks can allow them to learn more,the difficulty of the simple task is about the same as the first test.

但是美国老师会强调针对问题的具体解决方案,并称赞学生的正确答案,忽略学生犯的错误。与其在数学上取得进步,那么您就不是深度学习。那些认为失败使人进步,智力不是一成不变的人在进行数学思考时,脑活动更为高效。

2年来,哥伦比亚大学的心理学教授janet metcalfe在纽约的一所公立中学里追踪了订正法的教学效果。而那些认为数学能力是天生的,无法靠后天努力改变的人的任务表现更差。接着,其中的47个孩子边接受功能性磁共振成像(fmri)扫描,边做算术题。这些不良的认知习惯对于学习很重要,特别是从错误中学习是非常不利的。”(专家是一个通过自己的痛苦经历发现了在一个非常狭窄的领域中可能犯的所有错误的人。”

福特说的没错,科学家们现在有了相当精致的证据:不要从智力的角度看待你的成功或失败,也不要这样去评价你的孩子,否则ta可能就会被困死在聪明/不聪明的暴力二分法里。

people who are good at learning treat failures as error logs,people who are not good at learning regard failure as their own verdict.

斯坦福大学的心理学家carol dweck曾经提出两种学习心态-定型心态(固定心态)和成长心态(growth mindset)。

如果学生认为人的智力是固定不变的,失败是可耻的,失败不能教会人什么,那么甚至成绩不理想,他们也不会认真学习。如果您认为数学能力是天生的,当您遇到数学问题时, 您将考虑诸如“难吗, 我够聪明吗 如果我弄错了 我会看起来很蠢吗?“而不是动用脑力来回答问题本身。参与了这项研究的教师kushal patel表示,使用了这种教学法的班里,“ 8年级的代数能力测试(algebra 1 regents exam)的通过率是100%。并指导大家讨论课堂上常见错误的原因。这对他们的学习生活会产生巨大的影响。”

拥有定型心态的人认为智力生来是一成不变的,人做什么也改变不了。

最后,pe信号更强的人在之后的任务中会犯错误的错误,这意味着他们从错误中吸取了教训,并且提高了正确率(尽管实验任务其实很无聊)。

在一项被引用了1700次的研究中,dweck和同事调查了纽约市12所学校的400名5年级的小学生的学习心态,并且让他们做了一次实验任务。她想,如果您对智慧和能力持严格的看法,您可以更专注于绩效而不是个人成长,并非常认真地对待失败。但是拥有成长心态的人认为,只要努力,智力就可以得到提高。学生党们惴惴不安,家长也跟着操心。

the first signal appeared 50 milliseconds after the mistake,it mainly occurs in the brain area that regulates attention and expectations (anterior cingulate cortex)。

children who are experimenting with eeg recording equipment

举个例子,那些定型心态的人的pe信号幅度是5,但是成长心态的人的信号幅度是15。”

这项研究后来得到了过多共鸣。不过,在新学期开始前,你可以要问自己一个问题,如果到了期末考试成绩得不理想,这说明你笨吗?如果考得很好,这说明你聪明吗?或者,不应该从聪明或笨的角度看待这个问题?

she gave these 5th grade children some very difficult 8th grade tests.one more time,those kids who were praised for being smart did 3.2 roads gave up,but those kids who are praised for their hard work have delved into nearly 5 questions on average.

她说,“如果你正在学习数学,但是我担心的是他是否会失败。

the fact is,among the 5th grade pupils who are praised for their hard work,92% of children chose more difficult tasks.but among the kids who are praised for being smart,67% of children chose simple tasks.

亨利·福特

对于学习和犯错,百年前的物理学家尼尔斯·玻尔的总结不能更精辟了-“专家就是那些在一个极为有限的领域发现自己犯下了所有能犯的错误的人。)

chen和同事测量了243名7-9岁儿童的智力,数学能力,阅读能力,工作记忆以及数学担忧水平,同时测量了他们对数学能力的态度(数学能力是否一成不变)。

加州大学洛杉矶分校的教育家詹姆斯·斯蒂格勒和哈罗德·史蒂文森曾经在1994年出版的《学习差距》一书中比较了几个国家处理教学实践错误的不同方法。 假过了大半,新学期马上要开启了。

after this task is over,dweck and they let the children choose to check other people's grades,they can choose those with higher scores than their own,or someone whose score is lower than their own.among those kids who are praised for being smart,76% of people choose to look at those with lower scores than themselves,they save face in this way.but only 24% of children who are praised for their hard work are more interested in people whose scores are lower than themselves.

陈他们发现排除掉智商,工作记忆等因素后,那些认为数学能力可以靠努力提高的儿童的算术任务表现更好。日本老师很少称赞学生并认为挫折和学习是学习的一部分。”

 
 

 

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